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Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water’s outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. A large pipe (the “pen-stock”) delivers water to the turbine.





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A solar panel is a set of solar photovoltaic modules electrically connected and mounted on a supporting structure. A photovoltaic module is a packaged, connected assembly of solar cells. The solar module can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 watt module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt module. A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes a panel or an array of solar modules, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and or solar tracker and interconnection wiring.



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A highway flyover is also called highway overpass, over bridge. Highway flyover is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway. It’s mostly use in metropolitan.



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Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or micro irrigation or localized irrigation, is an irrigation method that saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant.

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In addition to wind and solar energy, the so-called bio fuels are becoming increasingly common. Generating energy through burning, vaporizing, or fermenting biomass such as leftover plant material, vegetable waste, and manure are well-tried methods. A new shoot on this branch of energy production is the microbial fuel cell, which is capable of directly generating energy from substances such as waste water. At the present time, this has only been done in the lab, but the first results and applications of this new technology are very promising.



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Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It is a renewable energy source, like solar and wind energy. Furthermore, biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials such as recycled waste and is environmentally friendly.

biogas plant